Course Title:
Semester: 2nd
Weekly teaching hours CREDITS (ECTS)
Lecture: 2 4


Introduction to medical imaging: medical imaging objectives; common medical imaging systems (X-ray, CT or CAT, PET, SPECT, ultrasound, MRI)

Medical imaging system (MIS), Image communication and archiving; Image quality: contrast; modulation, modulation transfer function; resolution; noise; signal to noise ratio (SNR); non random effect, artifacts; distortion; accuracy. Basic 2-D signals and systems. Transforms.

Electromagnetic spectrum: X-radiography; computed tomography; nuclear imaging (SPECT, PET).

Introduction to radiography: ionization; forms of ionizing radiation; nature and properties; attenuation of electromagnetic radiation; radiation dosimetry. Projection radiography: instrumentation (X-ray tubes, filtration and restriction; X-ray image intensifier); noise; scattering.

Computed tomography: instrumentation; image formation; Radon transform; image reconstruction from projections (back projection; filtered back projection; algebraic reconstruction techniques); image quality.

Nuclear medicine: instrumentation (collimators, scintillation crystal, photomultiplier tubes, image capture); image formation; image quality; planar scintigraphy; single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); positron emission tomography (PET)

Physics of ultrasound: wave equation; wave propagation; Doppler effect; beam pattern formation and focusing. Ultrasound imaging system: ultrasound instrumentation (transducer, probes); ultrasound imaging modes; steering and focusing; three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): nuclear magnetism; spin; Larmor frequency; RF excitations; resonance condition; free precession and relaxation. Magnetic resonance imaging system: instrumentation (main magnet, gradient system, RF system); image reconstruction; image quality. Image formation, methods of analysis, and representation of digital images. Measures of qualitative performance in the context of clinical imaging. Algorithms fundamental to the construction of medical images via methods of computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound. Algorithms and methods for the enhancement and quantification of specific features of clinical importance in each of these modalities.

Learning outcomes

The course learning outcomes, specific knowledge, skills, and competences that students will acquire upon successful completion of the Medical Imaging course are as follows:

  • Knowledge of Medical Imaging Techniques: Students will gain an understanding of different techniques used for the acquisition, processing, and storage of medical images for diagnostic and treatment purposes. They will become familiar with various medical imaging modalities, including radiographic imaging, nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound.
  • Understanding of Medical Imaging Instrumentation: Students will comprehend the operation of instrumentation utilized in different imaging modalities. They will learn about the components, functioning, and principles behind medical imaging systems such as X-ray, CT or CAT, PET, SPECT, ultrasound, and MRI.
  •  Image Quality Assessment: Students will be able to evaluate image quality parameters such as contrast, resolution, noise, and artifacts. They will gain knowledge of concepts like modulation transfer function, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), distortion, and accuracy in medical imaging.
  • Proficiency in Image Processing and Analysis: Students will develop the skills to identify, manipulate, process, and analyze medical images. They will learn various image processing and analysis techniques applicable to specific problems in medical imaging. They will be able to devise a sequence of processing and analysis steps to achieve specific goals.
  •  Understanding of Image Formation and Reconstruction: Students will comprehend the principles of image formation and reconstruction in different imaging modalities, including computed tomography, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. They will learn about algorithms and methods used in the construction, enhancement, and quantification of medical images.
  • Application of Qualitative Performance Measures: Students will be able to measure and evaluate the qualitative performance of medical images within the context of clinical imaging. They will develop an understanding of the importance of specific features in different modalities and the algorithms used for their enhancement and quantification.

General Competences

  • Search for, analysis, and synthesis of data and information, with the use of the necessary technology: The course will equip students with the skills to effectively search, analyze, and synthesize data and information related to medical imaging. They will learn to utilize appropriate technological tools for data processing and interpretation.
  • Adapting to new situations: Students will develop the ability to adapt and respond effectively to new situations and challenges that may arise in the field of medical imaging. They will learn to apply their knowledge and skills in diverse and evolving contexts.
  •  Decision-making: The course will enhance students’ decision-making abilities, enabling them to make informed choices and judgments when interpreting medical images, selecting appropriate imaging techniques, and making clinical decisions based on the findings.
  • Working independently: Students will develop the capability to work independently, demonstrating self-motivation and initiative in their learning, research, and image analysis activities. They will be able to manage their time and resources effectively.
  • Teamwork: While the course primarily focuses on individual skills in medical image analysis, students may also engage in collaborative projects or group discussions, fostering teamwork and effective communication skills when working in a multidisciplinary healthcare environment.
  • Working in an interdisciplinary environment: The course will expose students to the interdisciplinary nature of medical imaging, emphasizing the collaboration between healthcare professionals, engineers, physicists, and other specialists. Students will gain an appreciation for the contributions of various disciplines in the field.
  •  Project planning and management: Students will develop skills in project planning and management, particularly in the context of research projects related to medical imaging. They will learn to organize and execute projects effectively, including the design and implementation of imaging studies.
  • Showing social, professional, and ethical responsibility: Students will be encouraged to demonstrate social, professional, and ethical responsibility in their work. They will understand the importance of patient confidentiality, respect for cultural diversity, and ethical conduct in medical imaging practice.
  • Respect for difference and multiculturalism: The course will foster an appreciation for diversity and multiculturalism, emphasizing the importance of respecting and understanding individual differences in a healthcare setting. Students will learn to provide culturally sensitive care and interact respectfully with patients from diverse backgrounds.
  • Production of free, creative, and inductive thinking: The course will encourage students to think freely, creatively, and inductively in the context of medical imaging. They will be encouraged to generate innovative ideas, approaches, and solutions to complex imaging problems.
  •  Criticism and self-criticism: Students will develop critical thinking skills, learning to evaluate and analyze medical images critically. They will also engage in self-reflection and self-criticism to improve their own skills and performance.