Aims & Objectives
To introduce students to the concepts underlie the mechanical and biological properties of synthetic and natural biomaterials and tissue engineering principles and scaffolding techniques.
Learning outcomes & Competences
The students will be able to:
- Explain the concepts of stress and strain, and the parameters used to characterise the physical bulk and surface properties of materials.
- Describe the composition, structure and mechanical properties of the main classes of biomaterials- metals, ceramics, polymers, composites and the body tissues; explain and give an example of how composition, structure and treatment modify the mechanical properties.
- Explain how to determine the mechanical parameters of materials experimentally; interpret the results of tests and data sheets according to international standards.
- Describe the interactions of biomaterials with the biological environment – stability, corrosion, histo-cyto- and hemo-compatability; explain how these interactions are assessed and influenced by material choice and modification.
- Describe and the developments of biomaterials for regenerative therapies and tissue engineering; give an example of tissue engineering technique.
- Describe and give an example of how biomaterials are used to fabricate devices for clinical use.
Basic knowledge from topics of materials chemistry, biochemistry, materials strength, cell tissue biology.
- Linear elastic solid and linear viscous fluid. Non-elastic behaviour, plasticity, viscoelasticity, fatigue failure.
- Surface properties of biomaterials. Surface energy, critical surface tension.Measurement techniques.
- Metallic implant materials: Stainless steel, cobalt-chrome, titanium and alloys. Structure and mechanical properties. Fabrication-casting, forging, machining.
- Ceramics- aluminium and zirconium based, glass ceramics and bio-glasses, natural ceramics, hydroxyapatite. Structure and mechanical properties, fabrication.
- Polymers, addition and condensation. General structure and mechanical properties,glassy and elastomeric polymers. Chemical reactions, degradation of polymers. Polymeric implant materials examples, Poly-amides, -ethanes, -acrylates, -urethanes, hydrogels, fluorocarbons, dialyser membranes. Fabrication of devices.
- Composites, fibres and matrix materials. Relation between structure and mechanical properties.
- Examples of biomaterial applications, joint replacement, soft tissue replacement, artificial organs. Case study- total hip replacement, metal/ceramic, polyethylene, bone cement. Outcome of implantation.
- Interaction of biomaterials and the body. Stability, adsorption, corrosion: electrochemistry, Pourbaix diagram. Resorbable biomaterials.
- Cell-material interaction. Structure of proteins, adsorption to surfaces. Cell spreading and locomotion-physicochemical and thermodynamic aspects. Inflammation and wound healing
- Haemocompatibility. Example of dialyser membranes. Blood vessel damage, tissue damage; clotting, complement and white cell activation.
- Biocompatibility assessment. Cell and tissue culture methods- cytotoxicity, biofunctionality, animal testing.
- Biomaterials sterilization principles.
- Concepts of tissue engineering. Scaffold characteristics and design methodologies, cell seeding, biofunctionalization, bioreactors.
- Ethical issues for tissue engineering & regenerative medicine.
Recommended reading / Bibliography
BlOMATERIALS SCIENCE: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine, B.D. Ratner, A.S. Hoffman, F.J. Schoen, J.E. Lemon. Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-582460-2
BIOMATERIALS, ARTIFICIAL ORGANS & TISSUE ENGINEERING, L.L. Hench, J.R. Jones, CRC Press, ISBN 10: D-84932577-3
Teaching and learning methods
Lectures, seminars, laboratory exercises (fabrication of porous polymeric biomaterials, mechanical testing, surface characterization, cell-biomaterial interaction), visits to hospitals & research institutes.
Written exam, project assignment, oral project presentation.